Lecture notes for evolution here and here

11/4/11

  • cont. "Darwin's Dangerous Idea"

HW; evolution evidence tutorial, pg. 193-196



11/7/11


11/8/11

  • answers for misconception diagnostic
  • fossil transitional record

Fossil Record:

The fossil record shows transitional forms from extinct organisms to modern extant organisms.
Many examples exist: whale evolution, horse evolution, reptile-to-mammal , dinosaur-to-bird, human-ape and hundreds of others.
  • selective breeding... How is this evidence for evolution?

teosinte_to_corn.jpg
Shilton_Pontius.jpg

Pedigree Dogs Exposed


  • homologous and analogous features... divergent and convergent evolution

homologous_limbs_(1).jpg
homologous limbs

analogous_wings_(1).gif
analogous wings


HW; Similarities and differences: understanding homology and analogy


11/9/11

  • "in what way are homologous and analogous features explained by evolution?"
  • analogous and homologous behaviors
  • identify homologous and analogous features from specimens

HW; pg. 197, "Natural Selection" (through "What About Fitness?")


11/10/11

  • discussion of natural selection
  • playing card analogy -- randomness and nonrandomness of natural selection
  • PBS, Evolution, Evolutionary Arms Race

11/11/11

Nigel Tufnel Day!

  • PBS, Evolution, Evolutionary Arms Race

11/14/11

  • evolution: Great Transformations DVD

11/15/11

  • finish evolution: Great Transformations DVD

HW;


11/16/11


from Understanding Natural Selection: Essential Concepts and Common Misconceptions

Natural selection is a non-random difference in reproductive
output among replicating entities, often due indirectly to
differences in survival in a particular environment, leading to
an increase in the proportion of beneficial, heritable
characteristics within a population from one generation to
the next. That this process can be encapsulated within a
single (admittedly lengthy) sentence should not diminish the
appreciation of its profundity and power. It is one of the core
mechanisms of evolutionary change and is the main process
responsible for the complexity and adaptive intricacy of the
living world. According to philosopher Daniel Dennett
(1995), this qualifies evolution by natural selection as “the
single best idea anyone has ever had.”
Published online: 9 April 2009, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

examples of natural selection in real time:

FinchTypes.jpeg

More good evidence for evolution and natural selection information in your hardcover textbook:

Big Black Raven and Johnson Text

Evidence for Evolution
pgs. 458-468

Natural Selection
pgs. 454-457

HW;


11/17/11

  • discuss "Natural Selection in Real Time"
  • discuss definition of species
  • barriers between gene pools
  • short speciation activity... allopatric or sympatric?

HW;

  • formative assessment over first set of assessment statement

  • heart and lung test for those still needing to make it up


11/18/11

  • evolution formative assessement

HW;

  • finish evolution assessment

  • read pages 200, 202, 311-314 in Tiger book


11/21/11

HW; finish computer speciation activity through the fuchsia scenario


11/22/11


11/28/11

  • "Describe examples of barriers between gene pools."
mule.jpg

temporal_isolation.jpg

HW;

  • review speciation concepts

  • pp. 471-488 in Raven and Johnson textbook has some more good examples and explanations of speciation (be sure to use the assessment statements as a guide)


11/29/11


11/30/11


12/1/11

  • go over Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium activity
  • go over evolution formative assessment
  • hand back heart and lung assessment

HW:

  • DBQs on pgs. 314, 315

  • speciation assessment Monday, 12/5 (everything except polymorphism)


12/2/11

  • go over DBQs
  • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
  • read 436-437 in textbook
  • practice problems from Biozone book
  • H-W animation
  • this entry on Kimball Biology Pages is good

12/3/11

  • speciation formative assessment

HW:

  • review H-W readings (436-437)

  • complete sample problems

12/4/11


12/8/11


1/3/12

HW: finish collecting data for population lab by Friday


1/4/12


1/5/12

  • Popgen fishbowl data analysis (Data Collection and Processing)
  • D.5, phylogeny and systematics
  • Making Cladograms activity
  • work day Friday (1/6)

HW:


1/6/12

  • work day... study for test, work on lab, get help from teacher

1/9/12

  • substitute
  • phylogeny and cytochrome C lab
  • test Wednesday and lab due Thursday

1/10/12

  • questions on lab and test

A note about phylogeny, cladistics, etc.

What's the difference between a phylogeny, an evolutionary tree, a phylogenetic tree, and a cladogram?


For general purposes, not much. This site, along with many biologists, use these terms interchangeably — all of them essentially mean a tree structure that represents the evolutionary relationships within a group of organisms. The context in which the term is used will tell you more details about the representation (e.g., whether the tree's branch lengths represent nothing at all, genetic differences, or time; whether the phylogeny represents a reconstructed hypothesis about the history or the organisms or an actual record of that history; etc.) However, some biologists do use these words in more specific ways. To some biologists, use of the term "cladogram" emphasizes that the diagram represents a hypothesis about the actual evolutionary history of a group, while "phylogenies" represent true evolutionary history. To other biologists, "cladogram" suggests that the lengths of the branches in the diagram are arbitrary, while in a "phylogeny," the branch lengths indicate the amount of character change. The words "phylogram" and "dendrogram" are also sometimes used to mean the same sort of thing with slight variations. These vocabulary differences are subtle and are not consistently used within the biological community. For our purposes here, the important things to remember are that organisms are related and that we can represent those relationships (and our hypotheses about them) with tree structures. Understanding Evolution

PhylogeneticTree_human_migration.jpg
Human Migration

phylo_tree_with_morph._characters.gif
Tree for all life


1/12/12

  • discuss lab, graphing, trend line, error bars



1/13/12

  • discuss Cytochrome C lab
  • read about molecular clocks


HW: pg. 316-320


1/18/12


1/19/12

  • balanced (e.g. natural selection favors heterozygote over either homozygote) vs. transient polymorphism (one form progressively replaced)
  • sickle cell allele, prion disease (kuru) examples
kuru_dont_eat_brains.gif

  • calculate observed vs. expected phenotype frequencies in exposed vs. unexposed populations
  • other Hardy-Weinberg
  • practice phylogeny (pg. 317 DBQ)

1/23/12

  • go over Hardy-Weinberg and phylogeny/systematics questions and assessment statements
  • review for test on 1/24/12 (Hardy-Weinberg and Phylogeny/ Systematics assessment statements)
  • intro. to human evolution

HW:


1/24/12

  • substitute
  • test over Hardy-Weinberg and Phylogeny/ Systematics assessment statements
  • watch Becoming Human if time

HW: