complete readings and activities for E.3.1 through E.3.3 for 4/19/12

(pages 326-328 and 334, 335 in Tiger book)
  • all of the following are addressed in these pages but please read/watch/listen to the rest of the resources provided.

read pages 326-328 in Tiger book

E.3.1 Distinguish between innate and learned behaviour.
Innate behaviour develops independently of the environmental context, whereas learned behaviour develops as a result of experience.
external image e.3.1.jpg

E.3.2 Design experiments to investigate innate behaviour in invertebrates, including either a taxis or a kinesis.
  • You've conducted these experiments.

Taxis and Kinesis

Examples include:
• taxis—Planaria move towards food (chemotaxis) and Euglena move towards light (phototaxis)
• kinesis—woodlice move about less in optimum (humid) conditions and more in an unfavourable (dry) atmosphere.
external image e.3.2.jpg

E.3.3 Analyse data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on chances of survival and reproduction.
  • Think back to your isopods experiment. How does the behavior you researched effect survival and reproduction of the species?


  • Complete readings, etc. for E.3.4 to E.3.6, by Friday (4/20)

E.3.4 Discuss how the process of learning can improve the chance of survival.

E.3.5 Outline Pavlov’s experiments into conditioning of dogs.
The terms unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response and conditioned response should be included.
  • watch animation here and try the Pavlov game here

E.3.6 Outline the role of inheritance and learning in the development of birdsong in young birds.


  • Complete readings, etc. for E.6.1 to E.6.7, by Tuesday (4/24)

  • test on E.3.1-E.3.6 Monday (4/23)

read pages 334, 335 in Tiger book

E.6.1 Describe the social organization of honey bee colonies and one other non-human example.

E.6.2 Outline how natural selection may act at the level of the colony in the case of social organisms.

E.6.3 Discuss the evolution of altruistic behaviour using two non-human examples.
Natural selection is the gradual, nonrandom process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their bearers. It is a key mechanism of evolution.
Evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins.
In the science of ethology (the study of animal behaviour), and more generally in the study of social evolution, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. (wikipedia)

E.6.4 Outline two examples of how foraging behaviour optimizes food intake, including bluegill fish foraging for Daphnia.
  • Foraging is the act of searching for and exploiting food resources. It affects an animal's fitness because it plays an important role in an animal's ability to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia)
  • Optimal foraging theory is an idea in ecology based on the study of foraging behaviour and states that organisms forage in such a way as to maximize their net energy intake per unit time. In other words, they behave in such a way as to find, capture and consumefood containing the most calories while expending the least amount of time possible in doing so. The understanding of many ecological concepts such as adaptation, energy flow and competition hinges on the ability to comprehend what food items animals select, and why. (wikipedia)
  • watch bluegill foraging Daphnia tutorial -- How does the bluegill strategy maximize energy input per unit time?
  • watch dolphin mud ring feeding -- How does the strategy maximize energy input per unit time?

E.6.5 Explain how mate selection can lead to exaggerated traits.

For each example below, briefly outline how the trait probably evolved (through your own reasoning or research).

E.6.6 State that animals show rhythmical variations in activity.

E.6.7 Outline two examples illustrating the adaptive value of rhythmical behaviour patterns.
  • bats feeding at night to capture prey that come out at night
  • fiddler crabs coordinating mating to coincide with phases of the moon and therefore tidal patterns

How are the two examples above adaptive?


  • Complete readings, etc. for E.6.1 to E.6.7, by Tuesday (4/24)

  • test on E.3.1-E.3.6 today

  • discuss altruism; read altruism article from Wired (The Paradox of Altruism)


  • discuss the rest of behavior
  • introduce psychoactive drugs
  • test on E.6.1-E.6.7 Thursday (4/26)


  • discuss the rest of behavior
  • review for test on 4/26
  • psychoactive drugs
  • test on E.6.1-E.6.7 tomorrow (4/26)